Research amongst immigrant groups in Johannesburg points to the emergence of distinctive ways of negotiating inclusion and belonging that transcend ethnic, national or transnational paradigms. Confronted with new South African nationalism, a restrictive immigration regime and xenophobia, immigrants have reacted with what we term tactical cosmopolitanism’ to negotiate partial inclusion in South Africa’s transforming society without becoming bounded by it. This paper written by Loren B. Landau & Iriann Freemantle, contributes to the emerging literature on cosmopolitanism ‘from below’, conceptualized not as a philosophy but as a practice and form of experiential culture.